Many business people will be familiar with the term "solution." Many will be taught, such as in training, that it is important to find the problems that potential customers are facing in their lives and operations. But this book starts with the premise that the solution of "convenience" is over-supplied. As you can see from cars and home appliances, if you focus on the solution, all products will be similar or better.
Solutions, that is, people who can raise a problem are rarer than those who can give a correct answer. Therefore, the concept of "world view" is important.
In the first place, problems refer to the "gap between what we want to be and what we are", so if we can clearly describe what we want, that is, the world view, problems will inevitably become apparent.
However, it is not easy to draw the world view. Moreover, trying to express something that no one has seen has become even more difficult. This book shows the horizon vividly.
As a "artist involved in the production of works called the world", we should be able to achieve results of different quality if we tackle our daily work with our own view of the world. This book is one of the future prospects for that.
Main points of this book
Japanese companies have been fighting for the value of "useful". However, from now on, we should shift our focus to the value of "meaningful".
"Meaningful" means that there is a story and a worldview. Starbucks is a coffee shop, which is a market like the best of Red Ocean.
The role of design is to bring the future. Imagine a world that doesn't exist now, think vividly, think about the path to realization, and create the final output.
What is the "value" that future companies will create?
Excessive convenience reduces value
What is the value that the company is creating? The business mechanism is that if a company can provide something to society, it will be paid for it. However, the value itself changes depending on the way of society. The value of "excessive things" decreases, and the value of "rare things" increases. If steak comes out every day, it becomes a normal side dish, and everyone wanted a TV because it was in the mid-1955's when only about 10% of houses had a refrigerator.
Now, "things that everyone really wants" is gone. "Problems = troubles" that you would like to pay to solve are now rare.
The problem that has arisen is "excessive answers". As a result of pursuing logical correctness, everyone has arrived at the correct answer, and the market is overflowing with products with no difference in design or function. The question of what kind of desire was the correct answer was left behind, and the so-called "over-convenience" is a state in which the number of useful items continues to increase due to technological advances. On the contrary, the value of convenience decreases, and the value of inconvenient things such as wood stoves increases. In a sense, it can be said to be the denial of civilization.
Even if the cost is increased and the number of buttons on the remote control of the TV is increased, the customer does not feel the value. Even if you ask for excessive convenience, it will only result in products with low profitability. This also leads to lower labor productivity.
It is hard to measure with a "100-meter run"
The company chooses either "value to be useful" or "value to be meaningful" as a strategy. Japanese companies have always fought for the value of being useful. But now that value is overkill and the "value of meaning" is becoming scarce. In other words, the great revolution of civilization on the Internet has progressed sufficiently to enter the age of culture.
However, it is difficult for many organizations to transform their business from this viewpoint. The value of "useful" can be supported by logic and science, that is, there is a correct answer, while the value of "meaningful" comes from the sense, art, and intuition created by accumulating knowledge.
Companies that abandon value creation that is "meaningful" will focus on the BtoB market. But what is waiting there is a very athlete-like battle. The business has a simple performance measurement axis and is measurable. For example, IC chips are calculation capacity and cost, and automobiles are fuel consumption and price. Many people know the gold medalist who runs 100 meters, but do not know the bronze medalist. In the same way, it will be a structure of "1st place total".
There is a certain amount of "physical strength" to continue competing against the world on this stage.
Why you can't make cool things
Even people who work for Japanese makers who make smartphones use Macs and iPhones. Everyone knows, "I don't want to make this," but why can't I make something that looks cool?
For example, when introducing a new type Shinkansen, it is easy to understand quantitatively that "it will take 1 hour between Tokyo and Osaka". On the other hand, there is courage in proposing "underground metropolitan expressway" for the perceptual reason that "aesthetics are ruined." For such an abstract reason, it is difficult to reach consensus even at conferences. However, isn't this "young man's claim" such as "because I feel good" in the world of meaning and culture? The Japanese have a deep-rooted complex to "sense" and have no courage to judge for themselves that "this is good".
When presenting a product logo, it is important to thoroughly investigate the history and background of the product, and to verbalize the details of why this design came into being as detailed as possible.
How to create a world view?
Second penguin is important
It is an urgent task to increase the number of people who can “make meaning in new ways”. This leads to corporate leadership theory.
Until the 90's, logical and analytical leadership was required. It is easy to see that logic and analysis are “useful” measuring instruments and that “following this person is the correct answer”. However, creative leadership that uses "meaningful" as a ruler is very difficult. In a world where there is no correct answer as to what is beautiful or meaningful, it is very courageous to say "I think what this person is saying is correct." That's why followership itself can be leadership.
It is the second penguin that makes the first penguin the first penguin. In the age of meaning, an initiative that can judge someone's proposal with their own sense and say "I support this person's proposal" is essential.
From persuasion to empathy
The purpose of corporate advertising and branding is to ultimately make sense. Until then, products and services that I thought were completely unrelated to me will be replaced by ads that are related to me. But even large advertising agencies do not have 1% of creators who can make sense. In the first place, in the 15-second commercial frame that is currently the mainstream, it is very difficult to convey "useful" but "meaningful".
Design gives personality to companies and products, and branding creates a worldview. Because of the modern age that is full of information, the view of the world thus created "sticks" to the viewer's heart. The information you want to convey will naturally spread. It is necessary to have the sympathy of "I don't understand with my head, but my heart moves" rather than "I don't understand with my head".
Make it relevant to you
In order to create a world view for any product or company, it is important to first envision a core target person and then create a story with that personality as the protagonist.
There are many things that define personality. Which food do you like? People who like duck confit and people who like tonkatsu are completely different types. Then, the personality is launched. Whether it's stationery, a car, or a home appliance, think of the world in which it's used, as if it were a scene in a movie, and if you put the mind there, it will reach the heart of people. Just stationery becomes something that has something to do with you.
There are two approaches to creating such a story. The first is to create a character from scratch. Observing people in the city and imagining age, work, family structure, hobbies, why you are here, etc. is a good training for thinking about the core target story. The other is to leverage the worldview of existing stories. Extract important parts from the "original story" of movies and connect them to the target world view.
[Must read!] How to find new value
The world view begins with knowledge
The value standard of "good things" changes with the times. For example, in recent years, hotels are accelerating their return to their role as social gatherings, not just accommodation facilities. Although it is not gorgeous, it has excellent design, unique and interesting hotels are being created one after another, and a new genre called "community hotel" is being created.
So what is needed to identify the individuality of a product or company and create a world view that embodies new value? In order to do that, I must bring out various worldviews within myself. Simply put, "sense begins with knowledge."
To increase knowledge, it is useless to work overtime and input is required. How much you watch a movie, how much you walk in the city, how many books you read, how much art you touch. The amount of accumulated input becomes a sense. At first glance, knowledge that has nothing to do with work becomes a material for creating a world view. The more knowledge and broad experience you have, the better ideas you can create.
Possibility to hide in Red Ocean
By pursuing the scale and getting out of the game of targeting the mass, the "likeness" stands out and a brand can be created. Today's Japan is full of goods and services, and every market looks like a red ocean, but if you use design and aesthetics, there are still many things you can do.
Starbucks is a coffee chain called Red Ocean's ultimate market, and it has spread all over the world by competing only for the world view. Ultimately, the brand is created by the people who gather in Starbucks.
You can triple the price of a mature product or service that everyone thinks is “more than enough” if it can provide meaning and story. In other words, you can increase sales even if the number of customers decreases. Since Japan's population is declining, there is no future unless the whole country's industry shifts toward creating a world view.
Create the future
Value the "front" of design
There were also very eccentric and original terminals when Japanese mobile phones, the so-called "phones," were once in their heyday. Still, the iPhone wasn't born because it had problems with creative governance and decision-making processes rather than design. Teams were fragmented, with telecom companies creating specifications, engineers defining functional requirements, and designers differentiating the look. The designer who could play the role of creative director couldn't get into the technology part.
It is difficult to move a manager who has neither a sense of ownership nor a strong will to say "I want to do this." If you simply say something with passion and likes and dislikes, the design will get messed up.
At the upstream stage, the creative director must come in and start creating stories and world views. And the “front” part of this design is still a difficult task for AI.
Don't escape from the sense game
If you don't recognize what you think is a "good design," there will be some kind of personality denial. When you say, "I lost, because you have no sense," there is no escape. However, the final branch of whether or not a person can work is determined by the person's sensitivity and sense. If you run away from having a fight there, you will not be able to make a product or service that sells. In Japan, only elementary school-university training is conducted to "find the right answer." Thinking with your own sense and aesthetics should be a natural skill.
Knowing your likes and dislikes is the first step to improve your sense. At that time, it is advisable to add a habit to find out why you like it and where you can like it if you dislike it.
Design brings the future
As the times shift from "useful" to "meaningful", "accuracy" becomes more and more necessary. It can be said that "completeness" and "aesthetic sense". It is not just the products themselves that create a brand. It's all about packing, advertising, store interiors, websites, social networking sites, the president's clothes and tie colors. We will pursue high precision without cutting down on any one.
First, we set our own vision and create a future toward it. If you don't have the power to draw the future, you can't create "meaning" or "view of the world." The role of design is to create a final output by clearly thinking about a future that is not here now, and considering the path to realization.
Design brings the future. If you don't bring it, it's not a design.
Recommendation of reading
An acquaintance designer is a beautiful one, and it seems that he "trained to get used to being told by Volozo." The submitted works are arranged and posted in the order in which they can be drawn well, and the professor can blame him without mercy. You will also be able to tolerate lines like "You don't have a sense."
On the other hand, how can we, business people who have been training only to find the correct answer so far, be involved in the work of refining their senses and creating a world view? Even if they are messing with spreadsheets and presentation software Sense cannot be polished. This book is vividly presented with many examples.
This book provides valuable guidance to business people who want to make their jobs "meaningful" rather than just "useful." I want people who think that they have sensitivity and sense to read and read.