【英語要約】勉強の哲学 来たるべきバカのために

Review

What are you studying for? As a child, I study to pass a good school in an examination. If you become a member of society, you study to acquire qualifications and improve your skills. The purpose of such studies is to find a job in a good company and lead a stable life. However, just because you have passed a good school and obtained many qualifications does not mean you can have a good life. A better way of life may be to pursue and realize the enjoyment of one's own life, that is, to enjoy it, and to experience something new and reborn.

This book does not present a general theory of study on how to study efficiently and achieve good results. On the contrary, it recommends that the paste is bad and "stupid", so at first glance it may feel like a frivolous book. But it's never the case. At the heart of this book is the philosophical critical thinking that there is a deep trust in professional learning and research, and doubts the "obviousness" that the people have somehow combined. Behind the plain style is the author's highly accumulated expertise and deep reflection based on experience.

It is a very sensible book that explains the importance of deepening culture in modern times. By the time you finish reading, you will definitely want to study.

Main points of this book

Point 1

People live according to the surroundings. However, studying is to get a new paste that is different from the others. Studying is about getting worse and feeling worse, moving to a new place and becoming an idiot to come.

Point 2

There are two ways to study: Tsukkomi-Ironie and Bokeh-Humor. The former means suspicion of the place where one is placed and scrutinizing the grounds, and the latter means deviation from the original place.

Point 3

The scope of study is not limited, so it is necessary to make it finite. The range should be defined by a temporary "interruption" rather than a permanent "decision."

Point 4

It means that the study is continued by expanding the range temporarily fixed by interruption by further comparison.

Studying to be an idiot to come

When I study, I get worse

Everyone learns the skills needed to survive. The content varies from reading and writing, calculation, work skills, etc. Of course, you can live without having to study "deeply". It is a good way to live, moving according to your surroundings and being able to "ride" in situations well.

On the contrary, to study "deeply" means to stop in the middle of the flow, which is, so to speak, a way of life in which "the feeling becomes worse". This is a time-consuming study method in which you pass through a stage where the paste is worse than before, and you transform into a “new paste”. By studying deeper, we may be unable to do the "stupid things" that we have done so far, and the momentum of our lives may decline. However, beyond that, there is the possibility of transforming into a “coming idiot”.

Learning is not gaining, but losing. It goes through the first stage where everyone can do it, the second stage that passes through the trial that the old self disappears, and the third stage where it transforms into an idiot to come. The idiot to come is not just to adapt to the surroundings, but to fold the cleverness behind it, change the idiot at your roots, and become an idiot in another way, so to speak new It is the stage of gaining a sense of meaning.

Move to another paste

Studying is self-destruction to "become free." This deep study is called "Radical Learning" in this book. We belong to an "environment" such as a company, family or local, and we have limited possibilities. Since the behavior is decided in the environment, if "freedom is allowed", the next behavior cannot be decided. It becomes possible to act only when the infinite possibilities become finite.

In the environment, there is something I've learned before I knew it. When we live the life in line with it, we are ignorant of the code in that environment. On the other hand, to "disprove" an action that does not fit the code is to say "it is bad", and to "float" from others. Most of the time, I am not aware of this kind of environment and my own adhesion.

Studying means getting out of one environment and moving to another. If you study English, you will move to an English-style nori, and if you study sociology, you will move to a sociological nori. But in the middle of the move, between the two nori, we feel uncomfortable and torn. In a new environment, you have to use the names, jargon, and abbreviations of things, and you'll feel uncomfortable if you didn't say this in the past. However, by staring at this sense of incongruity, I become able to make myself linguistically different and self-destruct.

This conscious manipulation of language is common to any study. Radical learning can be said to allow people to intentionally select a word that is out of place and out of place.

How to make the glue worse

Purposefully create a feeling of self

When you study, you will acquire a “critical” attitude. Critically thinking of a different possibility means that the intention is worse. There is room for freedom in these "bad stories" and "feeling" stories. Being free by studying is all about being a disgusting person.

The language is separated from the surroundings and used as a toy. Techniques for freely manipulating the possibilities of such languages ​​are classified as "tsukkomi and bokeh" in comedy, that is, "irony and humor." For example, in the middle of a small talk, a utterance may "float" out of place, and there are cases where it floats irony and humor. It can be said that the "student" tends to make mistakes in talking, but if this can be demonstrated intentionally, the direction to deepen the study will be visible. The conversation has codes such as "I'm talking about this kind of story" and "Never talking about such a story". The trick to deviating from this code or to "overturn" the code is tsukkomi and blur.

Tsukkomi is to deny to others what they take for granted, "Isn't that right?" That is, "to doubt and criticize." Observe and criticize the code you follow, objectively. On the other hand, blurring means that only one person suddenly makes a "misaligned statement" and attempts to shift the code consciously or unconsciously.

By playing with self-irony (= self-tsukomi) and self-humor (= self-blur) with playfulness, I destroy the way I became a habit and deliberately create another disgusting myself. This is "overturning the code."

Irony doubts the grounds

The code of the conversation is a shaky, uncertain thing, shared as somehow air. Therefore, Irony who doubts the basis of the code reveals the uncertainty. For example, when you're talking about an affair celebrity, you can put a brake on the flow of conversation by saying, "Is affair really bad?" It is also possible to deepen the irony by asking, "What is evil in the first place?" and "What does adultery and love mean?"

These ironic stories continue to deepen and break towards the ultimate distant ground. In the end, though, if you go out of your current environment's code with suspicion, it's just another environment. Then, by recognizing that "language does not exist apart from the environment" and by recognizing "plurality of environments = pluralities of languages", it becomes possible to move back and forth between various environments like a traveler. You should This turn is a turn to humor.

A feeling of pleasure for yourself

The conversation flow tests each statement to see if it applies to the code. Stuck words in this test have a humorous effect. For example, when I was talking about the good and bad of affair, I suddenly said, "Love is like a chord in music," and before I knew it, I was in a situation where I could talk about "artists who have recently been watching. The fun of humor is the sense of direction = loss of purpose, "Is that such a story?" Since the extension of the code by humor is infinite in principle, there is an excess that it is necessary to interpret any statement as connected. Every word is a "semantic saturation" that causes meaning in all directions.

On the other hand, there is humor that "narrows" the conversation by focusing too much on a certain point, rather than "spreading" it. From the code, “unnecessarily detailed stories” can lead to “floating” from the scene, but this is the urge or pleasure to talk about something that the person has “stickiness”, that is, “hedonistic stickiness”. Is the result of being driven by.

We do some "weighting" depending on each hedonistic commitment. However, by studying deeply, one can ironically question one's hedonic commitments and proceed to the stage where they do not consider it to be absolutely fixed.

[Must read points!] How to deepen your study

Inquiry-type and association-type study

In order to deepen your study, it is necessary to first reveal the environment code that is the background of your life = "do this," and then think about how you are being danced, from an ironic point of view. Let's keyword them into “abstract” and “hard words” to some extent, and think about what “specialties” the keywords fall into.

For example, if you want to know "marketing" to improve your career, "marketing theory" is a "direct field." However, I would like you not to end it, but to study "indirect fields" such as economics, statistics, and sociology. By ironically doubting the career advancement itself in today's society, the target is captured with a larger metastructure. Thinking about the theme of study in Tsukkomi-Ironie like this can be said to be a "pursuit type" that pursues deeper in the vertical direction.

On the other hand, there is also an "associative type" that raises another variation in the horizontal direction from the perspective of humor. If marketing is the main focus, you can look up doujin music and smartphone games to learn about youth culture. This means expanding in the horizontal direction. Furthermore, from there, you may pursue it vertically and arrive at sociology of play and "game studies" (game research).

To become an idiot to come

In this way, the pursuit and association are clear, and the scope of study expands. Therefore, you have to study something with a focus. The study should be finite, such as "first of all."

In order to make it finite, it is required to compare reliable information and “break” at some point. But that is not the final conclusion. It is an interruption, and the conclusion is only "temporary fixation". It is important to "round up" in a modest amount and continue to make comparisons, that is, continue researching every day and continue studying.

One thing to watch out for is not falling into "decisionism." The decision actually happens when irony is thoroughly practiced. Irony seeks absolute grounds, but there is no such thing. "Isn't it then that paradoxical is paradoxically the most substantiated?" — Decisionists perceive that and “truthify” a decision, which is a leap in logic. ..

From the state of just comparing the possibilities, what ultimately becomes the scaffold is one's own commitment (= pleasure). However, hedonistic commitments are not fixed and may change as you continue to study. By broadening your study perspective, you can change your basic sense of pleasure = stupidity to another stupidity. That is what it means to be an "idiot to come." At first glance, it looks stupid just to match the surroundings, but behind it is a little cleverness. In this way the goal returns to the starting point.

How to study

Studying means being able to enter into a specialty field and to explain things in a "sociological style" or "engineering style." In order to get an efficient introduction to some specialized fields, you should read an introductory book in order to "provisionally limit" the scope of your study, rather than suddenly reading a full-scale book. Then you don't have to read everything. This is because "perfect" reading is impossible, as you can only read fragmentary information when you read it. The important thing is to understand the position of books in their specialized fields. Reading can be said to be just browsing and grasping only the table of contents.

The criterion for choosing an introductory material is whether it is the information of a reliable person or institution. Others that you should trust in your studies are those who continue to study. No matter how popular the decision-making narration, which is selfishly decided, should not be used as a scaffold for study, but should be based on academic "specialized books" and "research books". Those who continue studying by comparing information belong to the “space of intellectual mutual trust” in “research” and “academic”. The rationale for credibility lies in "whether the author/document is trusted by the space of intellectual mutual trust" and whether or not there is a constructive discussion with others regarding the field of expertise.

Continuation of study is the accumulation of temporary fixation. Therefore, as an extreme theory, no matter at what stage you quit, you can think that you have studied as such. In other words, there is no such thing as "study completed" when you completely master a certain field. A temporary study is established by interruption, and it resumes again. And talk with people who continue studying, bad friends, and bad friends. That is the study of idiots who should come.

Recommendation of reading

This book is certainly not a how-to book for improving school grades or job performance. However, if the practice presented in this book is practiced, the results will naturally come. That's because it's a way of thinking to think things in your head. It's not limited to studying. The same applies to business and life.

The summary focused on the theoretical part, but this book is interesting because it explains in detail how to learn. The author points out the importance of meta-analyzing oneself in order to expand the possibilities of study, and proposes the creation of a "desire chronology" as an example of that (refer to this document for the specific method). However, a new "concept of life" may emerge from here.

Also, in the appendix, consideration for “making things” is also developed. The reading is very valuable not only as a literary theory/artistic theory, but also in terms of its application to daily life.

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