The author is Toru Hashishita, who was once the governor of Osaka Prefecture, the mayor of Osaka Prefecture, and was the representative of the "Ishinkai." It is known that he organized a huge organization called Osaka at a young age and carried out unprecedented reforms. This book is a complete report of the “downstream bridge negotiation techniques” that such authors have learned through many shrines.
According to the author, there are only three principles of negotiation: "to make profit/make concessions," "to use legal threats," and "to ask." In practice, it is important to organize the needs of yourself and the other party, prioritize them, and prepare contents that can be concession. It is also important not to bring values, thoughts and beliefs into the negotiations, and to think about what to do after the negotiations break down.
The negotiation is not a fight with the other person, but a fight with yourself. How well can you organize your needs? How can we decide to abandon other wishes for the goals we absolutely have to achieve? Is it possible to properly organize while guessing the requests of the other party? The assertion that only those who have won the battle with themselves can succeed in negotiations is convincing as the author.
In addition to the experiences of the governor and mayor era, the commentary using a number of examples, such as Donald Trump of the United States and Kim Jong Un of North Korea, is concrete and easy to understand. I see! There are many places to hit the knee. Not only in the field of business, it is a practical book that is useful in various situations in everyday life, and at the same time, one part of Mr. Hashishita's political skill can be heard.
Main points of this book
There are three principles to win negotiations: "to make profit/make concessions," "to use legal threats," and "to ask."
Before negotiations start, organize your priorities, prioritize yourself, and make concessions. Negotiation proceeds by cutting the concession cards one by one.
When negotiations seem to be stalled, it is easy to find concordance by breaking down each other's wishes into elements.
Mr. Trump of the United States and Mr. Kim Jong Un of North Korea are experts in negotiations. Much can be learned from their practical fight negotiation techniques.
Three principles to win negotiations
Find something that will benefit the other person
"Negotiation" is a means to move the other person and achieve their purpose. Knowing how to negotiate can be a great force not only in the political and economic world, but also in the business and private worlds. Then what is negotiation technique? It can be divided into three categories: "profit/make concessions," "legally threaten," and "request." The details are explained below.
Negotiations are determined by "what and how much to give to the other party and what to give and how much". If you give a lot of money or give a lot of profits, the story will be settled quickly. However, if you continue to give something that is profitable to the other party, the number of items taken out by this side will increase and it will become a negative. Therefore, it is important in negotiations to find something that is profitable to the other party, without this side becoming negative.
One example is to create an environment in which the other person is in trouble and remove it to make it look beneficial to the other person. It is typical to set a strict deadline first and then extend it later. This is called "costume of costume". It is one of the most important know-how in negotiations.
Make it hard for me to break negotiations
"Legal threat" is an effective method for "hostile negotiations" in which you win or lose with your opponent. Declare, "I will sue you," and make the other person think that "If you break the negotiation, it will be difficult." If possible, it is desirable to apply pressure before attempting negotiations.
When you "lawfully threaten" you should threaten with your own power, not with the help of others. If you don't have the strength, it is important to judge that you should withdraw from the battle and save your strength.
By the way, it is important to note that the "legitimate threat" method is only counterproductive in "cooperative negotiation" where you want to maintain a win-win relationship with the other party.
Please, if it is no good, the negotiation breaks down
If the negotiation is not successful even if you make a profit, make a concession to the other party, or use a legal threat, you should also consider "requesting". But this is not true if the opponent is not willing to give up at all. In that case, there is no choice but to end the negotiation.
There are also principles regarding how to end negotiations. It says that the negotiation ends with a handshake. Even if it is a hostile negotiation, when the opponent raises a white flag, shoot it off and leave room for a handshake.
After negotiations break down, it is important not to insult the other person during the negotiations in order not to definitively destroy human relations. It should not be forgotten in any negotiation.
[Must read points] Negotiation techniques for "making profits/making concessions"
Organize the needs of yourself and the other person
The most important thing in "making profit/concession to the other party" is "arranging requests" between you and the other party. Negotiations are difficult to complete if there are too many requests. Organize requests in advance and divide them into "things that can never be given" and "things that can be given". In negotiations, you should cut the cards one by one from the one with the lowest priority among the "yieldables".
We can only guess at the other party's request. Through conversations, explore the wishes of the other person and understand their priority. Of course, the other person doesn't easily reveal their heart. You have to gain experience to read the other person's mind. From the author's experience, the effective method is to infer from the industry's or organization's unique values and judgment criteria. For civil servants, for example, the most important criterion is whether they are based on rules. In addition, “not taking responsibility for themselves” is an important factor for them.
Negotiation is a process of concessions to fulfill each other's wishes. Therefore, if you know what you and your partner want and what you can concede, negotiations will proceed smoothly. As for the order, (1) list your wishes and give priority, (2) search and list the wishes of the other party and their priority, (3) mark those that you can concession about the other's wishes, (4) Regarding your request, search for the item that the other party is likely to concede and mark it. In some cases, the other party may not have prioritized his wishes or concessions, but in that case, it is necessary to confirm while making inquiries through conversation.
Discuss concession cards one by one
Once you know what you want and what you can concede, the rest is a game of concession cards. Withdrawing one's request is one of the concessions, and accepting the other's request is one of the concessions. The principle of negotiation is to cut each concession card one by one. First, make a concession from here first. Note that when cutting concession cards, it is basically necessary to cut the same number of cards, but if the contents of the cards are not balanced, it will be necessary to adjust the number of cards.
The secret to a successful negotiation is to make big concessions elsewhere to secure what you can never afford. It's also good to pretend to be making more concessions than you really are with "costumes of disguise." Specifically, it is possible to lower it from "Flipping" first, or to deliberately set many requests.
There is also a method of setting a situation in which the other party is in trouble, requesting the other party to "remove it", and eliminating the request so that the other party appears to have made a profit. However, be careful because if the other party is too embarrassed, negotiations will break down, and in some cases the criminal law may be touched.
The negotiation is a fight with yourself
Don't let each other's "values", "ideas and beliefs", and "philosophical things" come into the negotiation. This is because negotiations will not be organized. The current Japan-Korea relationship is a typical example. Since the values and philosophical differences in historical perception are brought into the negotiations, parallel lines of discussion continue endlessly.
Negotiations are a fight with yourself. Whether your negotiations will be successful depends on whether you can minimize your acquisition goals. There is an image in the world that a person who pushes the other party hard and negotiates hard is an excellent negotiator, but it is not so. The game depends on whether or not a huge amount of negotiations can be prioritized.
What to do when negotiations aren't working
In order not to throw out negotiations
What to do if negotiations are not successful.
One of the ways is to break down the requests we have arranged so far into more detailed pieces, and break down "things that can never be given" and "things that can be given." You may be able to find a match between yourself and the other person. It turns out that it is just a matter of negligence due to a very small thing, and by negotiating that point, negotiations may proceed at a stretch.
If negotiations are not organized, there is a danger that they will exhaust each other and either side will throw out the negotiations. When the author himself goes into discussions with the staff during the governor/mayor era, the staff seems to be able to receive "Operation Heroero" by the staff, that is, a method (attack) to convince the other by exhausting the opponent over time. became.
However, the author endured it without throwing it up. That's because the line "I can't give up this much" was clear. Of course, it goes without saying that even lines that could never be yielded were further broken down into elements to find room for concessions.
Learn from the top negotiating techniques in the country
Unprecedented negotiation techniques experienced during the governor/mayor era
The negotiation techniques introduced so far are not merely desk-topical theories. The basis of the negotiation is the negotiations that the author experienced while he was the governor and mayor.
For example, Osaka's "private high school free of charge" policy was put together by breaking it down into its elements. Immediately after taking office as Governor of Osaka Prefecture, even when cutting personnel expenses for making bold budget reforms, it is ok to set a “line that cannot be surrendered” and break negotiations as long as the line collapses. I decided to challenge.
What is Mr. Trump's "Absolute line"
American Donald Trump is a master of negotiations. Take the January-2020 exchange between the United States and Iran as an example. The United States continued to impose economic sanctions on Iran, causing military skirmishes to continue, eventually killing American soldiers. In addition, Trump killed Iran's Revolutionary Guard commander in an airstrike after the US Embassy was attacked. The Iranian supreme leader, who was angry at this, declared retaliation against the United States, but Mr. Trump declared that if Iran retallied, he would attack Iran further. Iran then launched a ballistic missile at an American military installation in Iraq, proclaiming "murdering 80 American soldiers."
Tensions ran around the world to finally enter into a total war between America and Iran. However, the all-out war was averted when Mr. Trump said, "In fact, Americans were not harmed," and said "I don't want to use military power any more." It is Mr. Trump's behavior that is denounced in the world, but the author said, "This was a step after Mr. Trump arranged the requests and concessions of the United States and Iran to the utmost limit."
In short, for Mr. Trump, the "life of the American people" is a line that cannot be yielded, and the others have made concessions. So I allowed the destruction of several US military facilities, and Iran's announcement that "80 American soldiers have died. The United States has stalled in Iran's missile attacks." On the other hand, Iran may have decided to make concessions except for "retaliation against the United States." Actually, when making a missile attack, Iran made clear the target of the attack so as not to cause casualties to the American people, and provided the American soldiers with time to escape.
In this way, by clearly categorizing what can never be given up and what can be given up, both of them were able to show the world the message, "When you do, do it."
Kim Jong-un has something to learn
The reason why Kim Jong Un's bargaining power is that a small country like North Korea can negotiate with big powers such as the United States and China. By understanding the fact that the international community is a conflict of power and continuing to focus on nuclear development, we have gained the power to influence the international community as a result.
On the other hand, how many politicians in Japan can compete equally with the United States and China? I would like Trump and Kim Jong Un to be evaluated as national leaders and politicians for the time being, focus on negotiation techniques, and pay attention to their attitudes and behaviors. And where you should learn, you should learn a lot.
Recommendation of reading
Negotiations are not just push and pull, nor sticky over time. Furthermore, it is not something that can be managed by appealing to emotions. It is an intelligent technology that sorts out each other's requests, prioritizes them, and cuts concession cards one by one. The author said, "If you protect only what you can't afford, the negotiation will be successful."
Reading this book will not only improve negotiations, but will also help you to gain a deeper understanding of yourself and the values of others. What is necessary for negotiation is, above all, self-understanding and understanding of others. This book is for anyone who thinks "I am not good at negotiations" and "Isn't involved in negotiations".