【英語要約】人は、なぜ他人を許せないのか?

Review

Now that the Internet has spread, it's very easy to know what's happening in the world. It means that if you turn the inside out, the good and the bad will spread quickly. Especially scandals and scandals of entertainers are good news.

What happens at such times is "flaming" on social media. Some comments are overkill, even though they are not the parties involved. Their point is not wrong. However, is it necessary to hit it with such aggressive words when people all over the world can see it?

Author Nobuko Nakano, who is active both as a brain scientist and as an author, calls such a condition "justice addiction." When I saw these words, I felt a slight shock and at the same time felt like falling into my head. "Yes, is that addicted!"

The scary thing is that anyone can fall into that situation. When "justice sanctions" are applied to others, the pleasure center of the brain is stimulated and the pleasure substance dopamine is released. Then, I will start to look for more objects to punish. When I read this book, I feel that it is not something else. What can I do to stay away from these negative situations? I would like to know about the mechanism of the human brain that I think "I can not forgive", the brain training method recommended by the author to live calmly, etc. Only the content. As a prescription for "Justice Poisoning", I would recommend this book to those who feel confused or hard to live.

Main points of this book

Point 1

Everyone can fall into "justice addiction" that cannot forgive others. Due to the structure of the brain, human beings cannot accept anything other than the group to which they belong, and they tend to attack easily.

Point 2

It is extremely dangerous to push the direction of “justice addiction” in society as a whole, narrowing diversity.

Point 3

In order to free yourself from justice addiction, it is important to train the prefrontal cortex and acquire the power of metacognition.

"I can't forgive others" where everyone can fall

What is justice addiction?

"A female talent of pure character had an affair." "Large companies made a discriminatory expression in commercials." This situation does not mean that you or someone close to you suffered a direct disadvantage. However, I couldn't help but beating my opponent with strange words. If you're in such a situation, it's just a state of drowning in justice, and "I can't forgive." The author calls this "justice addiction".

Justice addiction can easily fall into everyone. Especially in the world of internet and SNS. The spread of SNS has made justice addiction more apparent and is strengthening it.

In addition, there are many people who feel the pleasure of reflecting their own justice, but at the same time feel that they cannot forgive themselves. If you are suffering from such conflicting feelings, you cannot be very happy.

Populations with narrowed diversity head to destruction

Apparently justice addicts have their own theory, their own justice. In reality, however, there are many cases in which the majority of people are in fear of being targeted. For example, it becomes difficult to give a different opinion when the mainstream is the tone of hitting A with “unscrupulous!”.

However, it is extremely dangerous to take such a trend and narrow diversity in the society as a whole. Narrowing diversity will increase productivity and fertility in the short term. However, when it is seen in the history of evolution, it ends up in the destruction. For example, suppose that a company is attracting only those talented, conversationally-skilled salespeople who perform well. However, suppose one day regulations were tightened and such sales could not be done. If the company has at least one warm and logical sales person, it can continue its sales activities. But without that diversity, the company will be in a difficult situation.

The relationship between the peculiarities of Japanese society and "justice"

Stupidity standards vary from country to country

Justice addiction can be anyone in any country. However, the criteria for what kind of person to be a deviant (stupid) vary greatly depending on the country or region.

In Japan, for example, "being unable to fit everyone" and "behaving differently" tend to be considered stupid. On the other hand, in France, where the author was staying, it was easy to think that "the same thing as everyone" and "don't say my opinion" were stupid.

Impact of natural disasters and closed environments

So why did Japanese people start thinking that it was preferable to swallow their opinions? It is related to the fact that Japan is an island country and the unique environment of Japan. First, there is a large amount of rainfall, and there is a high risk of wind and flood damage such as typhoons. Another feature is that Japan is located on the border of the plate, so there are many volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. There is Britain as the same island nation, but this seems to be the reason why Britain does not tend to take in its opinion.

Japan has long been plagued by natural disasters. Therefore, it is natural to think that those who have long-term forecasts and prepared themselves to survive in such an environment have survived.

Also, in the event of a disaster, there is no other way but to help each other aim for recovery. If you refuse to cooperate with the group or betray the consent, the person will be accused and attacked. Against this background, in Japan, the purpose of the group has become the highest priority over the will of the individual. Perhaps he had unconsciously adopted collectiveist thinking, as disobeying the idea of ​​the group could pose a crisis to the whole society.

[Must read point!] Why people can't forgive others

The human brain is made to oppose

Justice addiction, which is difficult to understand things different from one another and feels that they cannot "forgive" each other, can be said to be the fate of human beings. However, if you know the mechanism of the human brain, you will be able to eliminate this difficulty in life.

In the first place, the human brain is designed to confront anyone. It is a characteristic of human beings that they feel stupid because of a small trigger.

In addition, it may gradually become impossible to forgive others over a long period of time. A typical example of this is divorce due to "mismatch in personality." When they first met, they were attracted to each other, and that's because brain science is "because they don't match each other."

Nevertheless, why do they hate the disagreement after marriage? The reason for this is that they are closer to each other than when they were lovers. There are appropriate distances and levels of attachment for any couple. If there is an excess or deficiency there, the disagreement will start to feel rough.

Bias is a brain cut

All humans have an "in-group bias," in which they feel that fellow members within the group are better than those outside. Then, a label such as stupid is easily attached to a group outside the group. For example, Koreans who are pleased when the Japanese team has a goal in a soccer match, and French who are pleased with the German team's goal. Rather than having malicious intent, they are simply the state of the brain neglecting and being taken over by bias. The processing of the brain in this state is an easy processing that occurs automatically, that is, a unified processing.

Being able to handle people outside the group in a centralized manner is an act that requires less effort by the brain and has higher cost performance. Normally, you should make a careful judgment, taking into consideration each person's background and way of thinking. However, if this in-group bias works, it is possible to cut into both hands without any effort.

This method is very convenient when you need to make a quick decision, but your brain is in a state of "sluffing".

The brain is designed not to be too smart

As humans continue to be humans, the brain does not follow too much of the prefrontal cortex. In other words, it can be said that the brain is designed not to become too smart.

For example, consider the relationship between women and childbirth. The act of giving birth is risky, so if a woman prioritizes her life support, she should not choose to give birth. However, that would kill the human species. Therefore, it is designed to have a strong affection, libido, and attachment to children that cannot be controlled in the prefrontal cortex.

So is memory. If there is a person with a brain that can perfectly remember and never forget what happened, that person cannot forget unpleasant memories, nor can he rewrite their memories conveniently. Therefore, it will lead to a very difficult life. It is natural and natural for us to live better because it is possible for us to have a mechanism that allows us to gradually erase memory and rewrite it conveniently.

Ecstasy and suffering of justice addiction

Human beings are originally designed to attack only the groups to which they belong and to attack. The neurotransmitter dopamine is secreted in the brain during justice poisoning. Dopamine stimulates pleasure and motivation, and creates a comfortable state. The more you attack other groups, the more pleasure you get from dopamine, and the more you "stop hitting" others.

On the other hand, even if you are suffering from justice addiction, you may have contradictory feelings, such as looking back on yourself and struggling to think that you are actually wrong. This is also part of the brain's function. Attacking others can cause the brain to receive negative feedback. Negative feedback here refers to suppressing the secretion of hormones that induce anger and aggression.

The authors say they can't determine the scientific reason why these conflicting emotions can live in the human brain. But one of the leading hypotheses is: This means that coexistence of diverse values ​​within an individual brings the possibility of one generation to respond to sudden changes in the environment and the rise of new values.

Free yourself from justice addiction

The key to overcoming justice addiction is "metacognition."

In the final chapter of this book, we consider the scientific methods and ways to train the brain to be free from the "forgiveness".

The brain declines with age. When aging deteriorates the function of the prefrontal cortex, it becomes difficult to accept new ones.

The prefrontal cortex is a place for analytical and objective thinking, and is a great stepping stone to "forgive" people. If the prefrontal cortex works well, you can use "metacognition" without worrying about the commonly held beliefs and prejudices. Metacognition means the ability to objectively recognize oneself. In other words, "I am aware that I am feeling this way." Using this metacognition helps to train the prefrontal cortex and helps to overcome justice addiction.

Training to build a brain that won't age

From the perspective of brain science, here are four methods you can use to train the prefrontal cortex in your daily life to create an "old brain."

The first is to stop trying and get a new experience. For example, "walk a different route when you go from your home to the station when you commute to work" or "try a new menu when eating out". Behaviors that differ from daily life promote activation of the prefrontal cortex.

The second is to "put yourself in an unstable and harsh environment". Then you can re-recognize your thoughts and actions. For example, you can easily read the books that you normally never read, the books that you are not interested in, and the words that you are not interested in on the Internet. You can taste it.

The third is "easy categorization and don't run away with labeling". Be careful if you group people different from themselves, such as "A is XX" and "B is XX?" This also means that you have lost the chance to work in the prefrontal cortex. Be aware that the weakness of the brain lies on the other side where you feel comfortable with simple labeling.

The fourth is to "value the margin". In order to work the prefrontal cortex, the brain must have room. It is generally said that if patience is important, patience should be avoided. A typical example is "long commuting on a crowded train."

In order to overcome justice addiction, it is premised on admitting to yourself and others who cannot tolerate people that they cannot help because they are human. Then, if you develop a habit of metacognition, you will be able to be more open to and empathize with others who have rules different from your own.

Recommendation of reading

The author points out that the final way to get rid of justice addiction is to break free from all conflict axes and think about everything in parallel. First, take the thoughts and feelings of the other person and wrap them up. I realize how important this simple consciousness is.

Knowing how and why you fall into justice addiction, and tips for freeing yourself from justice addiction, will lead to more people living in peace. And I think we can reduce the division that spreads to the world. If you read this book, you will surely come to the moment when your eyes open with such hope.

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