【英語要約】科学的な適職

Review

Work is a big part of life. When asked by a Cornell University survey of 1,500 old people, "What did you regret most in your life?", The most common answer was "Why didn't you find a better job?" That is. In a similar survey in Japan, many elderly people answered that they worked too hard and lost their private life. Career choice has a great influence on human happiness.

So how can you choose "a job that suits you" = "a job that maximizes happiness"? This book shows the method concretely based on scientific data. From various research data from around the world, the author selected only techniques that are likely to help in choosing a happy job, and systematized them as five steps, "AWAKE." By following "AWAKE", you can wake up from the illusions that you tend to fall into when choosing a profession, broaden your horizons about choosing a job, learn how to avoid making the wrong choice, and even make the job you choose rewarding. It will be. It is really interesting to point out that the way of choosing a profession that everyone believes to be good, such as "make your favorite work", can actually be a source of mistakes.

Not only those who are going to choose a profession from now on, but also those who have already got a job and are thinking about changing jobs, side jobs, independence, and those who are worried whether the job they are currently working on suits them I think. This book is always useful at the crossroads of life.

Main points of this book

Point 1

In today's society, where careers are diversifying and there are many choices, many people are worried about choosing a profession. And many people get tunnel vision and make the wrong choice.

Point 2

"Wake up from illusions", "Expand the future", "Remove evil", "Notice distortion", "Rebuild rewarding". By following these five steps in order, you will be able to select a more correct occupation.

Point 3

Even if you complete the five steps perfectly, there will always be a moment when you feel anxious, "Is this okay?" Then practice the five steps again and make a decision. By doing so, you should be able to reduce your regrets in life as much as possible.

Why people make the wrong choice of profession

Much of career advice is useless

The question "How can I choose the job that suits me?" Is almost the same as the question "How can I be happy?" To that extent, work has a large place in life. Nevertheless, many people make the wrong choice of profession and lead an unhappy life.

Therefore, the author defined the right job as "a job that maximizes your well-being" and scientifically derived a method for finding the right job. "Step 1: Access the truth", "Step 2: Widen your future", "Step 3: Avoid evil", "Step 4: Keep the distortion" "human bias out)", "Step 5: Engage in your work". By following these five steps "AWAKE" in order, your decision-making ability will surely increase and the probability of choosing the right job will jump up.

Why do people make a mistake in choosing a profession in the first place? This is because in the history of mankind, the problem of choosing a profession has only recently arisen, and the human brain does not have the ability to choose a profession. The fact that people tend to be dominated by prejudice and beliefs also adds to the error.

There are various career advices in the world, but most of them are unreliable. This is because the judgment is based only on the individual experience and tastes of the advisor. Therefore, even if you try to select a profession with reference to such advice, you cannot easily reach the correct answer.

[Must read point!] Wake up from the illusion

Why you shouldn't make your favorite work

The author cites the useless advice that is circulating around the world as "the seven deadly sins in choosing a job." (1) Make your favorite work, (2) Choose by salary, (3) Choose by industry or occupation, (4) Choose by job enjoyment, (5) Choose by personality test, (6) Intuition Choose in (7) Find a job that suits you-as long as you take these advices, you can't find a job that suits you.

For example, the advice I often hear is "let's do what you like." At first glance, it seems like the right advice, because if you like it, you can continue to enjoy it, you can make efforts without difficulty, and you can naturally produce good results.

However, many research data show that "whether or not you do what you like to work, the final feeling of well-being does not change." No matter how much you like your job, as long as it's a job, troublesome work and troubles related to human relationships will inevitably follow. The stronger the desire for a favorite job, the easier it is to feel the gap to the actual job, and as a result, the feeling of happiness diminishes.

How much happiness can you buy with money?

Then why not choose a job based on your income? It's only natural that many people who can't find what they want to do think "at least a high-paying job." Even if it's not a job you like, you can enrich your private life with money and your pride will be satisfied.

However, another study reveals that "high or low salaries have little to do with our well-being or job satisfaction" (r = 0.15). Of course, we need a certain amount of income, but our happiness is hard to rise from around 4-5 million annual income.

Expert judgment is unreliable

Then, if you choose a job from the industries and occupations that are expected to grow in the future, a better future may be opened. Or, if you find a job that suits you through personality tests and aptitude tests, you'll get the best results with the least effort-unfortunately, the author's answer is no. The reason is that both are questionable in terms of accuracy.

In fact, there is almost no chance that experts have hit economic or corporate fluctuations. "Experts' prediction accuracy is the same as that of chimpanzee darts throwing," and the data says that it is half or half. Needless to say, in personality tests and aptitude diagnoses. The abilities required for a real job are so diverse and intricately intertwined that the results obtained in just a few tests cannot find the right job.

Expand the future

"Freedom" and "friends" should be emphasized

So how can you find the right job? The first thing I want to keep in mind is the seven virtues that are said to determine the happiness of work. This was derived by analyzing the results of 259 studies, and it is known that the importance does not change in Asian countries including Europe, the United States and Japan. Let's enumerate below.

(1) Freedom: Is the job discretionary? (2) Achievement: Is there a sense of progress? (3) Focus: Is it suitable for my motivation type? (4) Clarity: Eggplant Are the things to be done, the vision, and the evaluation axis clear? (5) Diverse: Is there a variation in the content of the work? (6) Companion: Do you have friends in the organization? (7) Contribution: How much the world Is it useful for you?

Of these, the virtue of "freedom" is a fundamental factor that determines the well-being of work. No matter how much you like your job, it's hard for people to feel happy in a workplace where their boss checks every move and gives detailed instructions. Conversely, even if you don't like a job, if you decide how and at your own pace, you can have a lot of fun working.

If you are uncertain about choosing a job, it is recommended that you look at the job description book and job information for employment / change jobs, check each job from the perspective of seven virtues, and list the jobs that your heart has responded to. Perhaps it contains industries and occupations that you have never thought of before.

Get rid of evil

Eliminate negative elements

Once you've listed the jobs that your mind has responded to, start working on eliminating those that contain negative elements. According to brain science data, our minds capture negative information in about 3-4 seconds, while it takes 12 seconds to capture positive information as long-term memory. Negative emotions quickly enter the human head and spread like a virus. No matter how much freedom you get or a job with a sense of accomplishment, if there is even one negative factor in your working environment, the benefits of the "Seven Virtues" may disappear.

In this book, "eight evils common to the worst workplaces" are listed as "work-life balance collapse", "employment instability", "long working hours", "shift work", and "no work control right". "There is no social support," "there is a lot of injustice within the organization," and "long commuting." The ones listed above are expected to have more adverse effects.

Narrow down the right jobs

Once you understand the three deadly sins of choosing a job, the seven virtues that determine job happiness, and the eight evils that are common to the worst workplaces, it's time to start narrowing down your jobs. Of course, there is no such thing as a perfect job that can satisfy all the factors. Use the three indicators to find the best balance for you.

As a technique for that, the author introduces three methods. First of all, Level 1: Procon analysis can be used for simple choices such as "whether to quit this company" or "whether to decide on this new job". This is an analytical method that lists the advantages and disadvantages of a particular option.

On the other hand, Level 2: Matrix analysis can be used when you want to narrow down "Which one is better?" From multiple candidates. Each item of "7 virtues that determine work happiness" and "8 evils common to the worst workplace" is scored by multiplying their importance and weight. By doing this, it is easy to improve objective judgment that is not influenced by emotions, and it is said that it is also used for US military decision making.

Although these two methods have some effect, the author considers "this is the best" at Level 3: Hierarchy Analysis. The procedure is a little complicated, but it is suitable for solving personal problems because it incorporates not only objective data but also subjective preferences as judgment materials. First set your final goal (eg, find the best place to change jobs), then list "factors that are likely to lead to work happiness" and "factors that destroy work happiness". Then, write down the information necessary to achieve the goal (if you want to find the best job change destination, the desired job change destination), calculate the importance while associating each element, and make the final evaluation. That's it.

Notice the distortion

Remove "bugs" that mislead you

By the work so far, the right job should be almost in front of you. But don't let your guard down here. There is still work to be done to make truly accurate decisions. It is the elimination of "bugs" that nest in the human brain.

The term "bug" here refers to a biased belief. It is also called "bias" in behavioral economics and is considered to be one of the factors that hinder accurate judgment. There are more than 170 types of "bugs", even those confirmed in research.

Here are some typical "bugs" in finding the right job. For example, "confirmation bias". This is the psychology of collecting only the information that supports what you once believed. People who think that "free working style is the best in this era" will collect only information on people who have succeeded independently and will only associate with colleagues who have similar ideas. This is a typical example.

Manipulate time and perspective

Methods for keeping a reasonable distance from any bias can be broadly divided into "time manipulation system" and "viewpoint manipulation system".

A typical time-manipulation technique is "premortum (pre-autopsy)". By daring to think of a future in which one's job search has failed, the effects of bias are reduced to the limit. Studies have already shown efficacy, and studies such as the University of Pennsylvania have found that subjects using "Premortum" have an average 30% increase in future prediction accuracy.

On the other hand, for viewpoint operation techniques, the "Iriist Career Change Note" is recommended. This is to record one's actions as "third person", and those who wrote down their worries in the third person became better at thinking about things from the perspective of others, and were able to derive the best measures from multiple perspectives. It has been reported.

Rebuild rewarding

Re-challenge even if you fail

It is assumed that through the work up to this point, it is finally possible to find a suitable job. Now, if you're old enough, life isn't that easy. No matter how scrutinized and strategically narrowed down your options, life can fail. Even if you are satisfied for the time being, there will be moments when you wonder, "Is this the correct answer for you?"

What would you do in that case? The author revisits the "hierarchy analysis" used in the process of choosing a job, and recommends re-examining his job using a judgment method called the "job satisfaction scale." The job satisfaction scale consists of "64 questions to judge the well-being of work", and each is calculated by evaluating it on a 5-point scale.

After that, if you decide that you should change jobs, you can take a step again and take on the challenge. If you realize that your current job is not that bad, you can devote your energy to improving your current workplace. .. In any case, knowing how to find the right job will make your life richer and happier.

Recommendation of reading

In this book, the idea of ​​"appropriate job" is fundamentally reviewed, and a concrete methodology for rationally choosing a job is described, which is different from common career selection advice. Many techniques that could not be introduced in the summary are also introduced. This is a must-read book for students who are about to get a job, working people who are planning to change jobs or side jobs, and those who are vaguely dissatisfied with the job they are currently working on.

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