This book is a business theory based on practice and research by the author who deeply pursued the "emotion" and "individuality" of human beings in an organization. Even now, since it was published in 1993, its essence has not faded, but it is what is required in the present age when the way of organization is being re-questioned.
In the field of economics, it has been a long time since the model of "rational economics" that mainstream economics envisioned has been reviewed. And the presence of "behavioral economics" that incorporates the perspective of psychology is increasing. Similarly, this book can be said to propose management and organizational development that focuses on the irrational aspects of human beings. Motivation management, the role of group norms, organizational revitalization, leadership and personality traits, individualization of business people, etc., all themes approach the essence of people and organizations.
When I read this book, I feel that the strengths of Japanese companies in the era called "Japan as number one" have been cut off as "irrational." Nowadays, "work style reform" and "black companies" are problems, but they are probably caused by the fact that workers and companies are connected only by rational interests and not human beings. This book contains many ideas that will be the key to the revival of Japanese companies in the future. There is an important viewpoint of "psychological management" in knowing the truth of human beings and facing the reality. This book should be read by anyone who wants to create an organization or team that keeps the individual as it is.
The main points of this book
Humans have various desires and have irrational aspects that sway between emotions. Psychological management accepts human reality as it is and regards emotions as a factor that has a significant influence on behavior.
Motivation for work is enhanced by a sense of accomplishment and approval rather than salary and conditions.
The norms shared by peers have a great impact on productivity. The management of small groups is the key to fostering an innovative organizational culture.
Knowing the personality of an individual is useful for securing diverse human resources and team building.
Psychological management concept
Understanding of human beings as they are
Honne for Tatemae, irrational human behavior for rational systems, and back management for front management. In this contrast, what is corporate management centered on understanding human beings as they are? Deepening thoughts on this subject is the basic stance of psychological management.
Bureaucracy and others aim for the most efficient system without waste. These organizations try to remove as much noise as possible from the information by unifying the control system. However, the essence of human behavior lies in the fact that it is based on this wasteful emotion and emotion as noise. Humans have various desires and sway between emotions. In psychological management, the highest priority is to accept human reality as it is. On top of that, he thinks that "emotion" is a factor that has a significant influence on human behavior.
If we try to see human beings only as rational beings, we will always see some impurities that do not fit on a rational scale. There are rules in corporate organizations, but what people actually follow is not the rules that regulate behavior. It is an implicit mutual agreement and a norm born from it. There is an important point of view of psychological management in the face of the muddy reality. Self-actualization of working people in a company, realization of a prosperous life. Both are the goals of psychological management, and at the same time, they are the ultimate themes that cannot be solved easily.[Must read point!] Things that motivate you to work
Factors of motivation
In the traditional theory of business organization, systems and rules have been created on the premise that people who work in an organization avoid working. But for modern workers, we should not just look at whether the desire for a minimum living security is met. It must also be taken into account that they like their jobs and have the side to challenge themselves.
Psychologist Frederick Herzberg conducted a study on job satisfaction in white-collar workers in the United States. According to this study, the only factors that contributed to job satisfaction were job-related factors. For example, when you experience a sense of accomplishment in accomplishing something at work, when your boss or colleagues approve your work, when you are assigned a heavy responsibility, or when you feel your growth through your work.
On the other hand, it is said that it is not the job itself that causes job dissatisfaction, but the environmental factors of the job such as work conditions, salary, company system, and supervisory skills of the boss. Even if these factors are met, it cannot be a positive force to bring satisfaction. However, it has become clear that when it is not satisfied, it causes dissatisfaction.
In other words, the factors that strongly motivate people for work are deeply related to human factors such as the work itself and the process of work, not salary and conditions. Furthermore, it leads to a sense of accomplishment, a sense of growth, and a fulfillment of the desire for approval.
A clear awareness of goals also motivates action. According to the results of behavioral science experiments, "do your best" is unlikely to be a motivation as a goal. It was found that the presentation of "a difficult goal that could be reached if you stretched out" would produce a greater effect. There are examples of Japanese managers presenting goals that seem impossible. This may lead to rejection and discouragement of workers.
However, in some cases, like Konosuke Matsushita, creative destruction can occur by intentionally throwing ridiculous goals at employees. The birth of new products, the creation of new markets, and drastic cost reductions are unlikely to be created by extending the current situation.
The effect of collective goals
"Groupism" is pointed out as a characteristic of Japanese-style management. One study found that group-based goals were more effective in improving performance than individual goals were given individually. By setting collective goals, members share responsibilities. Furthermore, feedback is given to each of the group goals and individual goals, creating a synergistic effect.
Psychology that determines productivity
There is a famous study called the Hawthorne experiment. Some of the psychological facts found by this were shocking enough to change the human outlook of business owners at the time.
The Hawthorne experiment was initially conducted to clarify how the brightness of the work room affects work efficiency. As the lights were brighter, productivity improved as expected. However, even when the lights were dimmed, productivity continued to rise without diminishing.
Why did such a result occur? It was special psychological because the six female workers selected as members of the experiment knew that they were the group of choice and that they participated in new attempts and were attracting attention. This is because the effect has occurred. In this way, the fact that the group consistently shows high morale by selecting and participating in a specific member is called the "Hawthorne effect".
What is important in producing the Hawthorne effect is the formation of small populations. In addition, it is worth noting that it is important that what seems to be a "norm" is formed within the group, such as the determination of production volume and the prohibition of announcements.
What is the most fundamental control over human behavior in an organization? It is not a formal rule. It is a psychological norm shared by the members of the group. Accepting and following the rules of the group is a testament to the members. And deviations from the norm are treated as undesirable. In this way, the psychological frame of reference with pressure to encourage members to act in tune is the "group norm." This is the decisive impact on collective productivity.
To foster an innovative organizational culture
When an organization becomes large, an adverse effect called "large corporate disease" occurs in which an individual is buried in the organization. The key to the solution is a "face-to-face small group" where each other can recognize each other's individuality.
A face-to-face small group is officially a unit of a workplace organization such as a section or a person in charge. Informally, it is a group of friends formed by like-minded members, such as drinking friends, friends who joined the company at the same time, and golf friends, when they are away from work. In either case, if the small group is recognized as autonomous, it will lead to the fostering of an innovative and open organizational culture. From the perspective of psychological management, human resource management that respects individuality has one origin in autonomous small group management.
On the other hand, it is also true that there are psychological barriers in human relationships in the daily workplace. What is useful there is a group experience for a certain period of time called an encounter group. Through this experience, one can strip off one's mask and learn non-superficial relationships. The invention of the encounter group can be said to be the greatest contribution of the social sciences in the 20th century.
Search for qualities, aptitude, and individuality from personality
Four Factors of Leadership
Can good leaders find common traits? In fact, observations of leader formation in animal populations make it difficult to conclude the common traits of leaders. Also, a person who finds a certain characteristic does not always succeed as a leader. With that in mind, we cannot simply find a consistent relationship between personality traits and leadership.
However, if the job classification is "managerial position", it is possible to discuss the aptitude and qualification requirements that suit the job. Through empirical research, the author has positioned the following two as the two major functions of leadership. "Request" that gives instructions to subordinates and seeks to maximize their abilities, and "empathy" that accepts the feelings of subordinates and gives compassion and support. In addition, "communication" that provides sufficient meaningful information necessary for subordinates to proceed with their work, and "reliability" that earns the trust of subordinates. The combination of these is the four factors of leadership, and the balance between them is important.
Aptitude and personality
Industrial psychologists have been pursuing the theme of "appropriateness" for many years. However, it is neither a simple thing that can be judged by some measuring rod, nor a substitute that can clearly reach one correct answer.
In Japanese companies, hiring is determined by personal evaluation through an interview test. Every profession and every company has room to accept many different personalities. On top of that, an individual has adaptability to various occupations and companies. Such a soft view of aptitude can be said to be a more human view.
However, Japanese companies tend to appreciate the image of a personality that is "full of vitality, diplomatic and dynamic." However, the people that companies want cannot be concentrated on one type. The important thing is to recruit people with diverse personality types in a well-balanced manner through personality tests that incorporate psychological concepts such as SPI.
Know yourself on the front and yourself on the back
Individual self-actualization and "individualization" in a company are also contemporary issues that psychological management should address. A personality test is a good way to find out about your personality.
For example, in the MBTI test, one of 16 personality types is selected depending on the combination of four types of orientation: extrovert or introvert, sensory or intuitive, thinking or emotional, judgment or perceptual. Can be classified into. In addition, the shadow part that is not manifested on the surface of the type and the shadow part on the opposite back side have important meanings when considering individualization.
Shadows are undeveloped or suppressed functions that are sleeping within you. For example, suppose a person who is calm and can make rational decisions has trouble with relationships. Then, it often happens that emotions, which are inferior functions for the person, pop out in an immature state. Even in the human relationships in the workplace, the depth of interaction is determined by the depth of involvement of each personality. At that time, one point is how much you get involved in the inferior function.
Also, you should fully demonstrate what you are most good at. On the contrary, it should be noted that troubles are more likely to occur in the area of one's own most underdeveloped inferior function. By sharing type information with each other, members of the workplace can identify problem-solving styles and make up for weaknesses. That way, the results of MBTI will be useful for team building.
In the future, companies will be required to have diverse values and to have soft management that can withstand various conflicting situations. This will lead to consciousness and manifestation of the shadow in oneself.
Recommendation of reading
The author focuses on the essence of human resources management and organizational development. Therefore, in light of the current situation, the range of applications is really wide. How important is it in management and management to correctly capture the movement of energy and emotions as human beings are? Many readers will be moved by the author's claim. It is a book that presents universally important guidelines on the ideal way of a company and "working style" and returns to its origin. It will continue to be read as a bible for those involved in human resources and management.