事実はなぜ人の意見を変えられないのか 説得力と影響力の科学

Review

How can you make your company's boss find the project interesting, or have your child stay still? It may be the same as the mechanism by which more people buy a particular product with good advertising and people are enthusiastic about Hitler's speech. After all, it's how the human brain controls behavior.

Using vast amounts of experimental and neuroscience data, this book continues to reveal that previously believed to be effective methods are not really useful. Various cases are introduced, and by re-experiencing them, you will be able to understand human characteristics more deeply. You should be surprised at the stupidity of the actions you took.

This book also clarifies what kind of brain function affects human behavior. What is there is a simple conclusion that people's opinions and reactions change depending on whether they act according to or contrary to the function of the brain. You cannot change people just by raising the "right theory". By reading this book, I was able to reaffirm that fact.

This is, so to speak, a human blueprint, a fragment of it. When you want to know how to move people, and when you want to know how you are moving, it will definitely help you.

The main points of this book

Point 1

Whether or not you can influence the thoughts of others, whether or not your behavior changes due to the influence of others, and whether or not you can help the other person's brain work are the deciding factors.

Point 2

One of the most effective ways to convey an idea is to share your feelings with the person you want to convey it to.

Point 3

People are more satisfied with the experience of having the feeling of "choosing" and "being involved" than what is given by others.

Point 4

Most people tend to think that they are less susceptible to others, but in reality they are unknowingly affected.

Emotions that move beliefs

Then you can't change others

What is the deciding factor for whether you can influence the thoughts of others or whether you change your behavior due to the influence of others?

Understanding the principles of behavior engraved in genetic information in millions of years of human history may allow us to more accurately predict the reactions of others. From that perspective, we find that the way many believe that they can change the thoughts and behaviors of others is actually wrong. Instead, you need to be close to the work of the other person's brain. This book clarifies the mechanism.

The stronger the belief, the more …

When a person argues with someone, he thinks that he is right and the other is wrong, and searches for attack material. But in most cases, that doesn't conclude. People are hard to change their opinions when they hear the facts, numbers, and data that they think are correct.

In a highly developed Internet society, you can get as much information as you can to reinforce your opinion. Such information tends to lead to polarization. This is because while they support information that fits their worldview (“preliminary belief”), they reject information that denies their opinion (boomerang effect). As a result, I become more obsessed with my opinion.

Collecting only the data that supports one's opinion is called "confirmation bias", but it is quite difficult to escape from this bias. Moreover, people with higher analytical skills tend to rationalize information and interpret it more conveniently. Such people have a solid "prior belief" and a strong conviction of the evidence that supports it. If this happens, there is a risk that prior judgment will hinder the recovery of forecasts. Even if that decision can be financially burdensome.

Emotions communicate with each other

"Emotions" are a hint to deal with a rigid belief.

The brains of the recipients of powerfully emotional things, such as speeches and concerts that impress many, are "in step with". Literally, the rise and fall of brain waves and the active areas of the brain are almost synchronized. This phenomenon can be seen not only in response to physical stimuli, but also in areas essential for associating things, generating and processing emotions, and empathizing with others.

Most of the brain is designed to respond immediately to emotional events, centered on the amygdala, which transmits excitement. Then, unknowingly, many people are driven to similar behavior.

Even if you are not twins, the moment when others "communicate" will come. Coupling occurs in the brain of the person being discussed at this time, and the listener even leads the movement of the speaker's brain. That's because it's more efficient. When emotions accompany them, they influence each other in less time and effort.

We consider ourselves different from others. But in reality, most of the structures and functions of the brain are similar. So one of the most effective ways to convey an idea is to share your feelings with the person you want to convey.

[Must read point!] Motivational mechanism

Proper use of candy and whip

Even if you say "because you get sick", it is surprisingly difficult to get people to wash their hands. What should I do?

In fact, immediate "candy" can often move people more than future "whips". Approaching a person or event that you believe to be positive is called the "law of approach," and avoiding what you believe to be negative is called the "law of avoidance."

Knowing that there is an immediate reward causes a "go reaction" in the brain that encourages action to approach it. On the other hand, if you anticipate something wrong, you will experience a "no-go reaction" that intuitively backs off. The nucleus accumbens of the brain, called the "reward center," is involved in the tendency of the "go reaction" to lead to positive results.

Conversely, if you "do not want" a particular action, it may be effective to warn you that you may be rewarded immediately. I'm sure many people have shrugged when they feel scared, but this is also a kind of "no-go reaction."

The desire to control yourself

People are afraid of airplanes even if they are said to be safer than cars, and they are extremely afraid of high places and spiders in front of them. This is because I feel that the airplane that I cannot control and the "crisis" in front of me that I can't help are out of my control and my independence is impaired.

The same is true when you want to influence the behavior of others. People are more satisfied with the experience of having the feeling of "choosing" and "being involved" than what is given by others. Moreover, if it is repeated, the relationship between choice and reward becomes stronger. Take stock trading as an example. Many people have a desire to control their property rather than letting investment professionals such as banks handle the transaction. Even if that is more likely to actually be a loss. Of course, even when leaving it to a professional, it is important to be able to make the decision to "leave it to others".

This is also the case when you want your child to study or when you want your employees to work hard. Instead of telling them to do this, give them a little responsibility and make them aware that they have options. By doing so, people will behave happily in "independence."

People move when they are positive

Bad news and good news

When we try to convey something important, we tend to think that the other person wants to know it for no reason. The other person actually wants to know only when the information can fill the knowledge gap and reduce uncertainty.

We see the information itself as a reward. Dopamine flows in the brain when information is likely to be available because the brain knows that prior knowledge can help make good decisions. Moreover, because we want to hear good news rather than bad news, we are pleased with the information that forms a pleasing belief and try to avoid information that causes offensive thinking.

However, avoiding certain information can increase the damage. For example, there are studies that many people refuse to test for HIV infection, even if it can be tested for free. If you don't know the test results, you can keep the belief that you are healthy.

A person is a creature that seeks information that evokes positive emotions, all other things being equal. Negative news, on the other hand, continues to be ignored unless it is known to be almost certain. Only when the facts go in the wrong direction, like the Lehman shock, and even the slightest hope is lost, can the damage be discerned.

Relationship between mood and behavior

Modern society is prone to stress. There are various levels and types of stress, from those that are strong enough to hunt you down to those that make you feel tired on a crowded train. When exposed to something that poses a threat to oneself, the reaction is a stress hormone. Increased heart rate, shortness of breath, etc., impair the functions of the less urgent immune system, digestive system, and reproductive system.

It has been found that under stress, there is an increased tendency to incorporate negative information. When that happens, I start to focus on danger detection and start thinking about the possibility of failure. It is also known that when the fear of "may be useless" can be dealt with, the activity of the amygdala that processes fear emotions decreases and the frontal lobe that enhances concentration becomes active.

Connect with others

Unconscious influence from others

Why do more people give their children the same name at the same time?

Humans learn by observing the behavior of others. This is because learning can be done more quickly than repeating trial and error alone. This is called "social learning." Most people tend to think that they are less susceptible to others, but in reality they are unknowingly affected.

The problem with social learning is that it can make decisions that aren't the best. Many popular websites quantify user opinions. This evaluation has become our new guideline. According to one experiment, the first high-rated review was posted, followed by 32% more favorable reviews than usual. Even one opinion influences all subsequent reviews.

Also, even if you think the answer is correct, you may change your opinion if everyone else gives different answers. The amygdala of the brain is activated by the opinions of others, which stimulates the hippocampus, which controls memory, and changes and fixes one's own memory.

It is important that you are already influenced by others, that your reasoning may be wrong, and that you do not self-identify your personality with that of others.

Is the opinion of others always correct?

Even if you don't intend to follow the majority vote, the solution that the majority of people prefer seems certain.

However, certain conditions are necessary for the group's opinion to be correct. It is that the individuals of the group maintain their independence. If the results are aggregated from each person before each discusses or hears someone's opinion first, the average value is close to the correct answer. However, since society and human beings are closely related, it is difficult to obtain independent opinions individually.

In the first place, people have two major biases. First, we are designed to create a positive correlation when given two variables (think tomatoes get sweeter as they get bigger). Moreover, the more people involved, the stronger this bias is in a snowball manner. It is dangerous if the relationship found there is "false".

The other is called "equality bias". This refers to a strategy of ignoring the credibility and expertise of each individual and treating everyone's opinions equally, that is, the phenomenon of choosing the most popular one. When this bias works, it will become increasingly difficult to find the right one in a flood of information like the Internet.

Recommendation of reading

This book introduces a number of very interesting experiments on the brain. Some of these include things that make you want to fundamentally doubt what you are doing casually. Enjoying each of these experiments is one of the effective ways to read this book. This is a book that anyone who wants to know the mechanism of human beings should definitely pick up.

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