【英語要約】働き方改革  生産性とモチベーションが上がる事例20社

Review

Increase corporate productivity by promoting work style reforms. That is the theme of this book. However, the author's true intention does not stop there. Underlying is a legitimate desire to improve Japanese society by reviewing the way we work. It's not that big words such as "fiscal consolidation" and "declining birthrate" cannot be said, but the most striking words are the following words as a living person of the author. "Working style reforms are focused only on improving corporate productivity, but the destination of social working style reforms is to rebuild the relationship of trust between husband and wife, greatly increase the happiness of the family, and encourage children. I really felt that the surrounding air changed. " The author fears that work style reform will end in a temporary boom, and that the entire Japanese society will rebound when no results are obtained. If you take a passive stance of "because the law will be enforced," it may reduce the motivation of employees. To prevent this, management must first have a good understanding of the background and essence of work style reform. The author's emphasis is also placed there, and this book specifically introduces examples of efforts by as many as 20 companies. The faces are extremely diverse, from small companies to government offices. Reducing overtime and improving business performance are by no means a trade-off. You can reduce working hours, increase employee motivation and organizational productivity, and improve business performance. This is a very encouraging book.

The main points of this book

Point 1

In Japanese society, which has entered the population onus period, the working environment is changing drastically due to the declining birthrate and aging population, and the increase in the number of people leaving the job, and work style reform is an urgent issue.

Point 2

The key points for successful reforms are "whether or not measures can be developed that suit each organizational climate," "whether or not everyone is able to overcome the need for reforms," and "whether or not they can be realized while helping each other as a team."

Point 3

In order to produce results and not cause rebound, it is necessary to improve the "quality of relationships" of team members and launch a "good cycle".

Background of reform

Demographic dividend period and population onus period

The period when a country's demographic structure gives a bonus to the country's economy is called the "demographic bonus period." Specifically, it refers to the period when the proportion of young people is large and there are only a few elderly people. As long as this population structure is available, young and cheap labor can attract jobs from all over the world and make a lot of money. Moreover, since social security costs are not so high, it is possible to use profits for infrastructure investment. Needless to say, this is the period of high economic miracle in Japan. On the other hand, the period when the population structure becomes a burden on the country is called the "population onus period". Onus means "load" or "burden". During the population onus period, the working population will decrease, making it difficult to maintain a social security system that supports the elderly. Japanese society entered the demographic dividend period and the population onus period in the mid-1990s. Moreover, the situation has become more serious because the shift has come at once due to the failure of measures against the declining birthrate.

How to work during the population onus period

I don't think the Japanese economy can be expected to develop anymore-some people may feel that way, but it never happens. However, in the demographic dividend period and the onus period, the path of economic development is opposite, so the key is whether or not it is possible to switch to a work style that suits it. In the demographic dividend period, fast, cheap, and mass production is the winning equation. This is because working hours and results are directly linked. An organization that has (1) only men as much as possible, (2) works for a long time, and (3) has only human resources with the same conditions wins. For society as a whole, it makes sense for couples to divide roles by gender. On the contrary, during the population onus period, everything needs to be reversed. The organization that (1) works for both men and women as much as possible, (2) works in a short time, and (3) appoints human resources with different conditions wins. Due to the labor shortage, it is clear that an organization chosen by both men and women has an advantage. In addition, labor costs will rise, so results must be achieved in a short time. And since it is required to differentiate goods and services, various ideas are needed.

[Must read point!] Actual reform

Don't run on superficial techniques

The most difficult thing to do in work style reform is the method of adjusting numbers such as "setting the forced leaving time". While letting employees go home anyway, if hidden overtime is widespread, employees' motivation will only drop. This is far from improving productivity. The author has supported the work style reforms of more than 900 companies and organizations. The biggest feature of the author's program is that the people who work on it will not be "feeling guilty" but will voluntarily promote reforms. This is because the focus is not on "know-how for returning early temporarily" but on "know-how for continuously working with high productivity". In order to realize such reforms, "whether the measures are suitable for our team / organizational culture", "whether all the members are able to meet the need for work style reforms", and "whether the teams are able to help each other. It is necessary to work while checking "Please."

8 months with trial team

A typical example of failure is a company-wide policy. When the Human Resources Department decides on a specific method and tries to deploy it uniformly within the company, it is repelled by saying, "Something has come down from the Human Resources Department who does not know the site! Please do not disturb your work." There are many. To avoid this situation, first select 3 to 6 teams of 5 to 10 people and run the trial team for 8 months. And during that time, while running along with the team, we will observe the actual situation deeply. Then, "the true reason why you cannot change your working style and its countermeasures" gradually become apparent. From the efforts of this trial team, we will raise the cases that have produced results to company-wide measures and expand them. This path does not change for companies of any size.

Determining the goal image

In the trial team's efforts, the author puts "determining the goal image" in [Step 0]. All members discuss and share what they want to aim for in work style reform. Theme: Why implement work style reforms? Goal: Determine the goal image of the team. Agenda: What's great about the current team? What's the waste of the current team? What is the ideal state? While drawing keywords and drawing a goal image in these steps, "While overcoming the problem of ●●, we will further develop the strength of 〇〇 and become a vibrant team that helps each other. By doing so, we will increase productivity ★★ Make a sentence such as "Become a team that can be achieved." Even if there are more issues, the point is to always replace them with positive words.

8-month program

After completing [Step 0], perform the following steps 1 to 4. [Step 1] is "confirmation of current working style". For this, it is recommended to use a method called "morning mail / night mail". It's nothing special, though. Morning email is to write down the schedule and time of the day in 15 to 30 minute units and send it to all bosses and colleagues by email, and evening email is to write down the results of the day when leaving the office and look back. [Step 2] is "extracting business issues". Aggregate one month's morning and night emails and verify whether their time usage is appropriate for the desired output. [Step 3] is "decision of review measures". The team will come up with a solution to the problem that has become clear. The author names it "Frog Conference" with the three meanings of "changing the way of working", "returning quickly", and "changing life". With the goal image created at the beginning in mind, we will discuss how to get out of the current situation and get there, and decide on specific actions. [Step 4] is "practice of reform measures". The important thing here is not to think too much, but to execute it steadily, rotate the PDCA cycle, and correct the trajectory.

Improving the quality of relationships

These steps may seem like a "strengthening time management" approach. But the essence is to improve the "quality of relationships". As the "quality of relationships" improves within the team and the members can respect each other, the "quality of thinking" improves and ideas and awareness are born. As a result, the "quality of action" changes, the person moves spontaneously, and the "quality of result" increases. Then, we will enter a "good cycle" in which the quality of relationships will improve further. On the other hand, if you start with "quality of results", you will fall into a "bad cycle". Even in the field of work style reform, bad cycles tend to occur.

Bad cycle of overtime reduction

What happens if the numerical goal of "reducing overtime" is set as "quality of results"? "Quality of relationship" becomes terrible, "I don't understand the site" and "I'm doing such an important job", and "Quality of thinking" becomes "conflict" and "being punished / passive". , "Quality of action" becomes "do not act voluntarily and positively". This is a completely bad cycle pattern. Naturally, the desired result is not obtained. In order to reduce overtime (improve the quality of results), even if it seems to be a detour, we should start by improving the quality of relationships. In fact, this is the true effect of morning and night emails. By sharing morning and night emails with your team, you can see who is doing what, where, and what you are focusing on right now. In addition, communication is born one after another within the team, such as noticing that "I spend two hours doing the work that my seniors do in one hour" and receiving advice. By visualizing each other's work, teamwork is improved. Entering a good cycle inevitably reduces overtime and, conversely, improves organizational productivity. The company's performance will also improve.

Review the evaluation

The final step in work style reform is "reviewing the evaluation method." If you don't put a scalpel here, the reform will rebound before you know it. It didn't matter how long it took, as long as the results were obtained with the conventional evaluation methods. Rather, those who worked long hours were highly evaluated, and it can be said that they were advantageous in terms of income and promotion. On the other hand, the key to work style reform is to "out of the evaluation range no matter how high the results are" after a certain period of time. However, this rule should not be applied to individuals. In conjunction with the award system, it should be set so that "if any one of the teams exceeds a certain working time, the entire team will be out of the award range." You will be able to think about how to increase the productivity of the entire team while helping each other as a team. We can expect an improvement in the "quality of relationships".

With a view to social reform

The reality of declining birthrate

There is data that the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare followed the same couple for 11 years. According to the report, the items that correlated with whether or not the couple who had the first child were born after that were the husband's time to return home and the time to participate in housework and childcare when the first child was born. In other words, it can be said that one of the reasons for the declining birthrate was that the first child-rearing became a lonely and painful traumatic experience for the wife due to the long working society. This is what the author himself experienced as a mother of one child. It is not important to consider the working hours of women in order to save Japanese society from the crisis caused by the declining birthrate. It is the correction of long working hours in the entire workplace including men and in society as a whole. Moreover, the baby boomer junior generation women, who are in the volume zone of the population, will soon finish their childbirth period. Work style reform is just a mess.

Increasing caregiver turnover

Furthermore, there is another situation where it is finally difficult to keep employees tied to work for a long time. The number of people leaving nursing care is increasing. The generation of parents in their 40s and 50s, which is the core of corporate society, especially the baby boomer generation, has entered the 70s all at once from 2017. As a result, the number of people requiring long-term care is expected to jump in the next few years. In order to cope with such an environment, it is necessary to create an environment in which employees with time constraints can continue to exert their strengths without quitting. Business owners who are still thinking about work style reform as an extension of their welfare program should reconsider. This is clearly a business strategy betting on corporate survival.

Recommendation of reading

I feel that the policy of "not taking company-wide measures" described in this book is extremely excellent. Many companies are thinking about enlightening employees and implementing work style reform programs in preparation for the enforcement of the "Work Style Bill," but I would like you to pick up this book before doing so. The author's words that he supported more than 900 companies and organizations must be "a cane that never falls."
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