【英語要約】イオンを創った女 評伝 小嶋千鶴子


Honorary Chairman Takuya Okada, who grew the dry goods dealer in Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture into Japan's largest distribution group, Aeon, after World War II. This book is a biography of Chizuru Kojima, a real sister who supported him as a parent, an older sister, and the chief human resources officer.

Chizuruko lost her father, mother and sister early and was forced to become the representative director of Okada Kimono store at the age of 23. I was surprised that the planned marriage was postponed, and both my family and the company, including my eldest son, Takuya, who was 10 years younger, were in charge. In the turbulent pre-war and wartime turmoil, she was able to identify what should be reformed and what were the obstacles, and to take measures one after another because of her strong depressiveness and high academic motivation. Must be due to.

After graduating Takuya to university and becoming the representative director of Okadaya, Chizuruko once withdrew from the management of Okadaya. After that, he returned and implemented personnel measures in quick succession in order to realize the various visions that Takuya envisioned. If you read based on the situation of Okadaya / Jusco at that time, why are these personnel measures necessary, such as regular recruitment of university graduates, strengthening of female employees, establishment of corporate universities, establishment of Jusco University / Graduate School, etc. You should be able to understand well what it was and how effective those measures were.

"Any good company will eventually decline if it doesn't adapt to changes in society."-It's often said like the slogan. However, it must be more and more important in modern times to develop leaders who realize it as a real crisis and promote change. It can be said that this is the book that should be read now.

The main points of this book

Point 1

As Chief Human Resources Officer, Chizuruko laid the foundation for raising Okadaya in Yokkaichi City to Jusco and Jusco to the Aeon Group.

Point 2

Chizuruko often asks employees, "Are there any problems?" With this word, I'm trying to reach out by asking if there are any problems with my work, complaints from customers, out-of-stock products, relationships between bosses and subordinates, and personal problems.

Point 3

The key to Chizuruko's personnel policy is to develop human resources who can tolerate change and respond positively.

Chizuruko Kojima's life

Appointed representative director of Okada Kimono store

Takuya Okada, Honorary Chairman of Aeon (Takuya), said, "There is no doubt that Aeon is prospering today because of my sister Chizuruko." She was born in Yokkaichi City, Mie Prefecture, and laid the foundation for raising Jusco to Jusco and Jusco to the Aeon Group.

Chizuruko Kojima (hereinafter referred to as Chizuruko) has grown the family business into a company and an industry. And in the process, he has succeeded in numerous mergers. Because of their skill, people call her a "legend of HR and organizational managers." Surprisingly, she established the concept of "management personnel" and "strategic personnel" half a century ago, and played the role of CHRO (Chief Human Resources Officer).

Chizuruko was born in 1916 as the second daughter of a kimono shop in Yokkaichi. About 10 years later, his eldest son, Takuya (later Honorary Chairman of Aeon Group) was born.

When Chizuruko was born and raised, Okadaya was in a turmoil. At the age of 11, my father died suddenly. My mother becomes the main pillar. Her mother also became a person who never returned when Chizuruko was 20 years old. In addition, the eldest daughter, who was in charge of the store on behalf of her mother, also died. As a result, 23-year-old Chizuruko will be the representative of Okada Kimono Store Co., Ltd. She had a fiancé at the time, but decided to postpone her marriage until her eldest son, Takuya, became full-fledged.

Re-start after marriage

In 1948, Takuya graduated from Waseda University and became the representative director of Okadaya. Two years later, both Takuya and Chizuruko got married. Chizuru Okada became Chizuru Kojima.

When she got married, she withdrew from the management of Okadaya and moved to Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka. And he opened the "bookstore" which was his dream for many years. It is said that it was popular in the neighborhood as a female shop owner.

However, in the end, he returned to Yokkaichi in 1959. This is because Okadaya was successful but was also in competition at that time, such as expanding into the center of Tsu City and opening a department store in front of Kintetsu Yokkaichi Station.

Securing human resources and employee education

Takuya's goal was to chain retailers in Japan. Chizuruko supported Takuya as the general manager of the management department, including the human resources department.

Human resources are needed above all to increase the number of stores. Chizuruko went around the school herself and struggled to secure human resources. We started hiring new graduates in earnest, and worked on strengthening female employees and actively hiring part-timers.

At the same time, we focused on employee education with an emphasis on discipline and knowledge. For female employees who cannot take a rest on Sunday, they also learned "tea" and "flowers" after work. As a result, top-class students have been recommended by high schools, and the reputation of "getting a clerk from Okadaya if you get a bride" has gained a reputation.

In 1964, the corporate university OMC (Okadaya Management College) was established for male employees who graduated from high school. This was the first retail business initiative. The OMC has a curriculum centered on liberal arts courses and business administration for human development.

Until retirement

Chizuruko and Okada aimed to expand the company through a merger in order to compete with manufacturers who have the right to decide prices. In addition to business alliances and mergers with "Kawamura" in Ise, "Marusa" in Shizuoka, and "Urashiya" in Toyohashi, JUSCO was born in 1969 by merging with Futagi in Hyogo and Shiro in Osaka.

Chizuruko advocated "Let's serve the local community through commerce" as the company motto, created "JUSCO's creed" and "JUSCO's oath", and distributed and sang it to all employees as a code of conduct. Furthermore, in April of the same year, Jusco Welfare Pension was established. In July, the "JUSCO University," which can be said to be the pillar of Jusco's personnel system, was established.

In 1976, when it was listed on the Second Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, Osaka Securities Exchange, and Nagoya Stock Exchange, the Jasco University Graduate School was established to foster top management in senior positions. We took up policy issues related to management and adopted hands-on learning such as case methods and business games.

In this way, Chizuruko, as a human resources specialist, has implemented a number of new measures even today. Then, in 1977, when he reached the retirement age of 60, he retired without any hesitation.

Chizuru Kojima's Life Philosophy

"What if I live to my age?"

Chizuruko is 102 years old. She often tells ex-employees, "What if you lived to my age?" "Because it's longer." It encourages the other party to self-manage.

Chizuruko has been more concerned about her health. Correct your eating habits and be sure to have a medical examination. Based on the idea that health management is his own management, he gave a strict evaluation to employees who could not manage health and did not put them in responsible posts.

This question also includes the question, "How to secure living expenses after retirement?" This is because if you only have pension income, you cannot survive a long life.

He also asks, "How do you spend your life after retirement?" Chizuruko has lived her hobby life after retiring from Aeon at the age of 60. It is said that he spends a calm life with his husband and spends his days full of pottery. He also opened a private museum and held special exhibitions by his favorite artists.

It's 100 years of life now. It seems that you need to plan your life and prepare for it from a young age.

Chizuruko Kojima's Management Philosophy

The site is a treasure trove

"Is there a problem?"-Chizuruko says this when she goes around the store or meets with employees. With this word, I'm trying to reach out by asking if there are any problems with my work, complaints from customers, out-of-stock products, relationships between bosses and subordinates, and personal problems.

There are three purposes for Chizuruko to say this word. One is to find out how much the employee is aware of the problem and is interested in the site. Next, know the status of the employee. Finally, give the employee a sense of ownership.

What if the questioned employee answers, "No problem"? For Chizuruko, the answer is directly linked to her low awareness of the problem. Then, he asks questions one after another and tries to grasp the core of the problem. Is the underlying problem specific to the employee or department? It's about finding out if it's a company-wide problem or if the boss knows it.

Then, when he returned to the head office, he asked, "I had something like this. Do you know?" For example, suppose an employee does not have sufficient product knowledge. At that time, Chizuruko calls the manager of the skill development department, inspects the manual, and asks, "What kind of education is being given to employees in these departments?" And confirms the contents of the product knowledge manual. Identify whether the curriculum is lacking or the employees are lacking in study. After that, he was considering countermeasures.

There is another intention in "Is there a problem?" Make sure your employees aren't in a situation where they can't concentrate on their work.

There is such a story. One day, Chizuruko told the author: "Please bring Mr. A's personal file from the Okazaki store." When the author brought it, Chizuruko read her resume and read her self-assessment. It was written that Mr. A's wife was ill, that he was being treated but there was no improvement, and that he was looking for a good doctor.

Chizuruko, who looked up from the documents, called a contract doctor of the Jusco Health Insurance Society, gathered information on the illness, and was introduced to a specialist and a hospital. In addition, he contacted a professor at a university hospital with whom he was acquainted and asked him to introduce the authority of the road.

This is just one example. Chizuruko was the one who dealt with problems that could not be solved by herself, such as child-rearing and long-term care. The question "Is there a problem?" Had various intentions.

[Must read point!] Chizuruko Kojima's Human Resources Philosophy

Ensuring corporate development potential

In 1980, Chizuruko created the "Human Resources Policy Memorandum" for human resources personnel. Although 14 policies are introduced in this book, this section deals with "the basics of personnel policy" and "maintenance and penetration of a good climate".

The first thing to keep in mind when formulating a personnel policy is to secure the development potential of the company. With the ability to develop, people can have the hope of demonstrating their abilities. If you have hope, even if you have some dissatisfaction, you will be able to resolve it and look to the future. If this climate is fostered, development potential will be born, but if not, business performance will decline and complaints will be filled.

Therefore, maintaining and instilling a good climate is of utmost importance in personnel policy. Since people have the power to develop a company, it is important to foresee and tolerate change and create a human group that actively responds to change.

Top and staff

Next, in this section, we will focus on "top and staff" and "utilization of outside staff."

A good top is someone with good staff. Moreover, the staff must have control as a group, as a matter of course, having expertise. A highly fictional person, no matter how talented, can divide the power of the group. You have to be careful.

In addition, it is desirable that the personnel at the top of the business be bold and meticulous. It is dangerous to lengthen a person who is not cautious and a person who is sweet. It is best that the key person at the top is cautious and the people around him are bright.

In order to respond to changes in the environment, we must constantly select and utilize outside staff. External staff can be divided into three categories: (1) human resources for the top philosophical backbone, (2) human resources for theoretical armament, and (3) human resources for introducing new technologies. In particular, (2) and (3) are related to innovation policies and strategies, and can be said to influence the future of companies. Thorough analysis and deliberation and consideration for long-term and fundamental impacts are essential. (The above titles are omitted)

Recommendation of reading

In the summary, Chizuruko's career and achievements, and personnel philosophy were mainly explained, and life philosophy and management philosophy were only briefly explained. Many pages are devoted to her philosophy in this book. There is much to be gained when considering not only human resources but also life and management.

I would like to recommend this reading not only to personnel personnel but also to all business people involved in organizational management.