大前研一ビジネスジャーナルNo.16 人材戦略は「軽く・薄く・少なく」 ~20世紀の人材観が会社を滅ぼす~

Review
This series is an easy-to-understand explanation of the latest trends in each theme by re-editing the contents of the seminar for managers by Kenichi Ohmae. The theme this time is "human resources strategy" that influences the fate of a company.

Isn't the future of our company dangerous if we don't review our human resources strategy on a zero basis? To become a company that is selected by excellent human resources, and to get angry with management about essential measures to secure and develop human resources. What can you do to get it? This book should be read by those who have such a sense of crisis, especially strategic personnel. Specific topics are the problems of human resources strategy of Japanese companies, the keyword "flexicurity" of labor market reform in Scandinavia, how to embody the human resources image that companies really need 10 years from now, and revitalize companies. How to make a senior career path.

Mr. Omae, who advocates that "human resources strategy should be'light, thin, and few'," what kind of concept is he envisioning? As the reader expected, all of Mr. Omae's suggestions and suggestions are at the core, and it is inevitable to read them all at once. In addition, you will get a refreshing after-reading feeling with its accuracy. Since the basis of the proposal is clear, it can be effectively used as a material for persuading the management team by incorporating the 21st century human resources strategy into concrete measures. In this way, it can be said that this is an extremely practical book.

Strategy for turning to 21st century management If you want to learn the key points of human resources, this book should be read.

The main points of this book

The point
1
The fundamental problem with the human resources strategy of Japanese companies is that they are holding people through the recruitment of new graduates and self-reliance. The human resources strategy for the 21st century is "light, thin, and few." The idea is to narrow down to core employees and have human resources, and to consider utilization, outsourcing, and automation of external human resources.
The point
2
It is important to make the management strategy and the human resources strategy consistent. In order to select and follow executive candidates, it is essential to create a "personnel file" that enables each employee to understand their aptitude and assign optimal jobs.
The point
3
What Japan needs is serious structural reforms and labor market reforms that promote flexicurity.

wrap up

[Must read point!] "Let's do our best together" only accelerates hitting the cliff
"Employment stalemate" occurring in many Japanese companies

The management resources of the 20th century were "people, goods, money", but the management resources of the 21st century are "people, people, people". Finding and nurturing sharp human resources with the talent to change the direction of the company is one of the important management issues.

What is the current state of Japanese companies? First of all, unlike other countries, lifetime employment is still continuing. In addition, it has not found an effective solution for "aging people" who were hired in large numbers during the period of economic growth. Even if they encourage early retirement, they cannot be dismissed freely, and "employment stalemate" is occurring.

What are the fundamental issues in the human resources strategy of Japanese companies? The point is that they are embracing people through the collective recruitment of new graduates and self-reliance. As a result, it remains unable to respond to rapid changes in the business environment.

Despite this situation, Japan is trying to push non-regular employment to regular employment. However, the fixation of the labor market is only negative for Japan today. The era of "If we all do our best, we can do something about it" is a thing of the past. We must break away from the management view and human resources strategy of the 20th century as soon as possible.

Pursue flexicurity

Rawpixel / gettyimages
What Japan should pursue is "flexicurity," which has been the key to labor market reforms that have been underway in Northern Europe such as Denmark and Sweden since the 1990s. Flexicurity refers to the idea of ​​relaxing dismissal regulations to increase employment flexibility while ensuring the stability of workers' lives through effective measures against unemployment. This brings the benefits of flexibility on the corporate side and security on the workers and society side.

In 2003, German Prime Minister Gerhard Schroeder carried out labor market reforms and social security reforms in line with this. It led the German economy to recovery. While companies made it easier to organize personnel, the government's active promotion of vocational training and employment support was successful. Even in Japan, this "Schroeder reform" will be needed sooner or later.

What is the 21st Century Human Resources Strategy?

The human resources strategy of the 21st century can only be "light, thin, and few." Fifteen years from now, most industries will reach a time when the old regime is at its limit, the "breaking boundary." And in 20 years, it can be predicted that various businesses will disappear.

If you hold a person under these circumstances, it will be difficult to change direction. What you need to do is keep it in a flexible position so that you can change direction freely. Therefore, it is necessary to narrow down the human resources that are really needed (core employees) to have human resources, and to consider the utilization, outsourcing, and automation of other human resources.

From now on, the era of "excellent person"

NiseriN / gettyimages
Due to the influence of digital disruption, the era of excellent companies has come to an end. This is symbolized by the crisis of GE's collapse, which was the representative of the Excellent Company.

From now on, it is an era in which only one individual can make a breakthrough rather than an organization, technology, or capital. The condition for a company to win in business is to acquire many excellent persons, that is, outstanding individuals. For individuals, aiming for an excellent person is a condition that determines their survival.

Draw the image of human resources that the company really needs 10 years from now
Align management strategy with human resources strategy

When developing a human resources strategy, management must first have a clear vision of what kind of company they want to be. After that, clarify the necessary human resources image and set "human resources specifications". In this way, the management strategy and the human resources strategy are aligned.

Next, it is the job of human resources management to formulate and execute strategies for hiring and training human resources that meet these human resources specifications. Do not make a mistake in this order.

The privilege of management is personnel affairs. So how much resources should managers devote to the important task of human resources? In the author's experience, managers should spend more than 20% of their time developing successors and leaders. The important thing is for the management to discover and select the human resources who can grow the business and change the direction of the company.

Core human resources are required to be found from all over the world using LinkedIn, regardless of age, nationality, or gender. It is also useful to build a human resources database for that purpose.

CyberAgent that nurtures business and human resources together

CyberAgent is introduced as an example of a pioneering company that has adopted a 21st century-style personnel strategy.

The company's strategy is "organic growth." First, start a lot of new businesses and involve employees in management decisions. Clarify the withdrawal rules and hopefully increase the capital. If it doesn't work, withdraw immediately, and even if it fails, give employees a second chance. In this way, business and human resources can be nurtured together. If this system is turned on, employees' "experience in making decisions" will increase, which will lead to the development of management personnel.

One of the characteristics of CyberAgent's human resource development system is the "new graduate president" system. Employees who joined the company as new graduates will be appointed presidents of subsidiaries from the first year. By October 2015, 40 new graduate presidents have been born. In some cases, the company proposes it, and in other cases, employees run for themselves.

If you become the president, you will learn about human problems, system problems, labor problems, etc. all at once. This has contributed to the establishment of a culture that accelerates the growth of human resources and encourages them to take risks and take on challenges.

Strategic personnel perspective that makes the most of the rare resource "human"
You should spend time creating "personnel files"

Causing Ltd / gettyimages
From now on, the perspective of strategic human resources that makes the best use of the scarce resource "human" will become more and more important. The first thing to maintain is a "personnel file" for selecting and following executive candidates. The purpose of creating a personnel file is to find and raise excellent human resources buried in the company and place the right person in the right place.

Many Japanese companies have a history of who was assigned to which department and who was transferred. The problem, however, is that it doesn't provide the essential "descriptive" information about what the person is doing and what skills they have.

The HR file should even describe what the employee did, what relationships he had with his colleagues and subordinates, and what he had improved. The reader can understand the aptitude of each employee and assign the most suitable work. This is the correct personnel file.

Shiseido's "Reverse Mentor System"

Former GE CEO Jack Welch was also the catalyst for the spread of the "reverse mentor system." This system aims to revitalize human resources by instructing veteran employees by young employees.

Shiseido is practicing this. At the company, executives recommend about 20 employees around the age of 30 as mentors. Then, the clerical staff will match so that the fields of responsibility of both officers and employees are different. On top of that, the system asks young executives to give advice by having interviews once or twice a month or going out with them to visit commercial facilities. It can be said that this is a good example of utilizing the mechanism of sucking up "from bottom to top" in employee education.

How to create a senior career path that revitalizes companies
Challenges for middle-aged and older people, "mental block"

One of the major distresses of middle-aged and older people in their 40s and 50s is raising the age at which they start receiving pensions. If you retire at the age of 60, you will have to pay the living expenses for the five-year blank period from retirement allowances until you reach the age of 65, when you will start receiving benefits. Moreover, this period is about to be extended to 15 years, which may put pressure on old age. Therefore, it is indispensable to acquire "earning power" in the latter half of life.

There is a "mental block" as an issue for middle-aged and older Japanese people. After the age of fifty, I feel like I can see the future of my life, and my aspirations diminish. And there are many people who fall into a situation where productivity is low for a high salary.

Energize the company and society by starting a senior business or starting an in-house business

In order for middle-aged and older people to gain "earning power", it is desirable to practice entrepreneurship while working at a company. You can start a business as a side business, or you can propose a new business within your company, so to speak, as an intrapreneur (entrepreneur in the company).

If you start at the age of 40, even if you start a business that takes 3-4 years, you can challenge 5-6 times by the age of 60. If it is an in-house entrepreneur, it can be said that the merit is that the creation of a new business leads to the revitalization of the entire company.

Japan's recurrent education, which is many times behind

bowdenimages / gettyimages
Skill improvement is indispensable to improve "earning power" even in middle and old age. In Japan, very few people relearn at higher education institutions after becoming a member of society. There is even data that the re-education rate is the lowest in the OECD.

High costs and busyness are often cited as reasons why working people do not go on to graduate school. But now you can get an education online anywhere in the world. So these are just excuses.

I want to do it for the rest of my life with the skills I had when I left school. You can learn the necessary skills in the field. This idea is still rooted in Japanese companies. Originally, both veterans and newcomers have to study new things.

If recurrent education is to be promoted in earnest in Japan, it is essential to create an environment where students can learn while working. At that time, what is needed is the serious structural reforms and labor market reforms that promote the flexicurity mentioned above.

Denmark, a pioneering example of flexicurity, is famous for its "golden triangle." It means a three-piece set of "flexible labor market," "a generous safety net," and "aggressive employment policy." Even if you lose your job, you can re-educate with peace of mind while receiving unemployment benefits, and you will be able to re-employ and return to work. This cycle is essential.

What should an individual do?

What should individuals do in the coming era when there is only one solution? First, remove the mental block and hold a high ambition. Next, decide how to work. For that purpose, it is desirable to diet the work so that the time can be used effectively. In the first place, it is important to get a job that cannot be replaced by AI or robots.

On top of that, the author calls on him to continue his intellectual challenges, hone his "ability to find answers," and aim to become an excellent person.
Recommendation of reading

Google, which makes full use of its human resources database for recruitment, and Nestlé's efforts to develop global human resources. From such cases of anticipating the 21st century human resources strategy, we should be able to see the essence of ideas and measures that can be utilized in our company.

It is also full of diagrams and graphs that organize the issues of Japanese companies and their solutions, which is very useful for organizing the main points. One of the values ​​of this book is that you can learn about Mr. Omae's thinking process by reading these carefully.

We should listen carefully to Mr. Omae's insightful proposals because the laws of success of the past do not apply.

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